|Figure 1 : "Self portrait" by Paul Cezanne- oil on canvas |
( 1862-1864 )
· Introduction; Paul Cezanne the father of the 20th Century.
In the late 19th century, Paul Cezanne, a French oil painter, was characterized as modernism’s fountain-head, who successfully managed to break away from Impressionism. Cezanne’s work became a catalyst for the abstract art of the 20th century, and his theories were important for the groups which were founded later on known as the Fauves ( wild beasts ) and cubists who had used his discoveries and developed his idea further. He died in the autumn of 1906, he avoided contact with the influential personalities of the contemporary art scene, that’s why he was a “famous unknown”. ( Cantz, 2004, p.14) - (pamela swanson 1991, his influence http://poetpam.com/PDFs/Paul%20Cezanne.pdf )
|Figure 2: Self-Portrait by Paul Cezanne|
1878-80 (160 Kb); Oil on canvas, 60.3 x 46.9 cm (23 3/4 x 18 1/2 in);
The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Cezanne was the only artist of his time who succeeded in spanning several generations to become a 20th century painter because of the unique style of using flattened perspective, structures compositions, and his palette knife technique for creating patches of color.
Also the way that he evolved of putting down on canvas exactly what his eye saw in nature and for the unique qualities of pictorial form that he achieved through a unique treatment of space, mass, and color. Moreover, his linear , paraller brushwork and his direct sketching onto the canvas, creating works that mostly appeared unfinished , could possibly lie between the two: this explanation will consider him that he was the father of modern art , or a catalyst for the art of the avant-garde (Kendall, 2003, p.45-47).
Description : In this short video Csaba Markus at the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts
discussing Cezanne's "Buffet" and cubism.
During the greater part of his own lifetime, Cezanne was largely ignored, and rejected by the official Paris salon in 1870 because his work was radically different from that of his contemporaries. Although he never cared about critics who had failed to appreciate his revolutionary art, he isolated himself in both Paris and Aix. And he ended his long friendship with Zola, because his antisocial mind found a disappointment and embarrassment at Zola's writing ( L’Oeuvre ).
|Figure 3 :The novel's cover page "L’Oeuvre" |
by emile zola
The main painting ( novel's cover page ) of two nude female in the woods with two clothed males sounds very much like one of Manet's paintings "Le déjeuner sur l'herbe,"
the painting that stirred up the most invective at the 1863 Salon des Refuses
In that book Zola recognized Cezanne as portrait of this unsuccessful painter. Emile Zola somewhat made sure that no character in his novel was fully represented as a person he knew in real life. But the similarities were enough so that many of Zola’s friends were offended; Paul Cezanne for example, who never spoke to Zola again after publication of The Masterpiece. However, Zola’s own judgments come out through the story because he doesn’t appear to understand the new style of painting ( Rewald,2006, p.161-162 ) .
IF you are wondering , How did hey portray Cezanne?
IF you are wondering , How did hey portray Cezanne?
Zola took a whole lot of biographical detail from Cezanne, including the very sensitive matter of the mistress whom the painter wed years after she had a son by him.
Cezanne continued to depend on support from his father: that is why this was sensitive.
Figure 5 :The Life of Emile Zola - The picture captures a scene of emile zola and pal cezanne. ( 1937 ) – film , directed by : William Dieterle.
Besides, he was seeking not to replicate the outer appearance of the landscape but to express what he described as a “ harmony parallel with nature “ through a new language of painting. And indeed the great figural works such as of his last years seemed to reveal curious distortions. Also, he used to paint the world just as he saw and observed without concern for idealization.
“ I paint as I see and as I feel, and I have very strong feelings “ – paul Cézanne ( hoog,1994,p.66)
Many of Cezanne's early works were painted in dark tones applied with heavy, fluid pigment, suggesting the moody, romantic expressionism of previous generations. He destroyed most of his artworks and others were unfinished. Plus, he used small geometrical shapes and varied brushstrokes to create accurate elements.
Description : Paul cezanne’s still life ( apples ) whch describes how his art work were unfinished and sketchy but still cezanne could draw beautifuly.. and how he was trying to find his own unique way to paint, see and experience.
Cezanne was introduced to a new technique for rendering outdoor light. Along with Claude Monet and other painters, they had developed a painting style that involved working in the outdoors named as (en plein air). This technique included employing small touches of pure color, without the use of preparatory sketches. They were hoping to capture the natural effects as well as their own emotional states as they believed that artists stand before nature. (hoog,1994,p.63-64)
“ No painting done indoors, in the studio, will ever be as good as anything done in the open Air “ – Paul Cézanne ( hoog,1994, p.165 )
|Figure 6: Cezanne At Mont Sainte Victoire (photographed by Kerr-Xavier Roussel in January 1906).|
And during a short time, Cézanne shifted from dark tones to bright hues and his artworks began to concentrate on farmland and rural villages. Also another technique was shown in Cézanne’s landscape paintings was the overlapping, which is basically the way that forms are broken up and shifted apart as a way of abstraction was introduced in Cubism ( lewis,1992, p.128).
· Self-Portraits :
The first to begin with, during the middle years of 1890s Cezanne painted his only self portrait , his interest in capturing his own appearance was ongoing and continues.
The artist’s psyche at that time was as the following; the astonishingly communicative eyes, gazing out at the viewer with tremendous intensity simultaneously challenge and inquire but at the same time establish distance.
This gaze is heightened by the sharp bend of the eye brows and especially by the pointed (S-curve) over the right eye which tends the entire face a troubled expression.
There are four categories for Cézanne’s self portraits, the total is 25 self portraits :
· 12 of them , has a small scale, shows only his head, often turned sharply over his shoulder .
· 11 of them , may be described as busts
· One of them is a three-quarter view ( painted after a photograph )
· Finally the principal work in this genre is the present painting , the largest of the entire group and only one which Cezanne depicts himself explicitly as an artist. ( Cantz, 2004, p.14-15 )
|Figure 9: self portrait holding a palette by Paul Cezanne 1885-87 (110 Kb); Oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 28 3/4 in;|
Collection the Artist's Family, Paris
· Still-Life :
Besides, Cezanne’s still life’s composed the abstract principles of formal design upon the most ordinary things. For his Art work “ still life with skull and candlestick “ he portrays the traditional objects such as a skull with it’s lower jaw missing which was a feature of almost all of his skulls, a dying rose with a broken stem, and the open book with illegible script were long established symbols of ( transience in European still life painting ). It was a technique so brutal as to redouble the symbolism of the theme (Hoog,1994,p.36 ).
Cézanne did not create a series of works about the skulls subject until shortly before 1900, the subject was little interest to him especially because of the death of his mother and the awareness of his own advancing age brought this theme to the fore once again (Hoog,1994,p.37).
· Society Criticism:
Add to that, Paul Cézanne believed that the artist’s success in solving technical problems should guide the artist in rendering his sensation. In 1863 He came up against the salon jury , when he sent a painting that was rejected. And during the early decades of the twentieth century, An American early modernist art criticism was formed about Cezanne’s works.
They used the main term “plastic’’ to describe the solidity in Cezanne’s pictorial images. Harvard professor of psychology and philosophy William understood “ plastic ’’ “ to imply both the flexibility of matter yielding to pressure and the physical property characteristic of a concrete form, such as the one found in Cezanne’s painting “ (Stravinsky, rothkopf , 2009, p.134 ).
The association between Cézanne and modern art was developing by the American audience during the early of 1899. For example; Morton Schamberg (An American painter and photographer) traced the whole modern movement to Cezanne (Stravinsky, rothkopf , 2009, p.135 ).
In 1910 Charles Caffin pointed to the significance of construction in Cézanne’s work and then referred him as an artist who started the modern painting on a new use of color ( hoog,1994,p.136).
Next, another critic had determined that form was a psychological factor and that Cézanne’s artwork has a plastic reality and outwardness which the imagined object wholly lacks ( Rishel, Sachs, 2009 , p.234).
Clement Greenberg’s impression about Cezanne can seem harsh, he described a late “ Chateau Noir” as sublime but one of three paintings , and the rest of the artworks were not measured up. He argued that “ the problem that preoccupied Cezanne that of translating volume and distance to a flat surface without denying its flatness ’’ and he concluded that Cezanne had been too far ahead of his time ( hoog,1994,p.110).
Marsen Hartley referred that Cézanne does not paint objects but rather his visual experience of them. Add to that, he considered Cézanne neither a painter of psycho grams, except in what is represented as his failed romantic early period , nor a painter of perfect objects ( Marsden Hartley, 1918 ).